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Learning The Nine Types of Pronouns Part III

by May L

Learning The Nine Types of Pronouns Part III

As defined in Part One of Learning The Nine Types of Pronouns, A pronoun is a word such as we, them, or anyone that replaces a noun or another pronoun. Pronouns must match the number and gender of the noun they stand for and be in a case (form) that matches its function.


Pronouns have the same functions as nouns: They may act as subjects and subject complements, direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of prepositions.

Here is the Part Three explanation of the nine types of pronouns:

D. RELATIVE PRONOUNS: A relative pronoun connects (relates) an adjective clause or a noun clause to the rest of the sentence.


1. Relative pronouns that introduce adjective clauses:

When a relative pronoun introduces an adjective clause, the pronoun refers to a noun already mentioned in the main clause of the sentence.


who, whose, whom, which, that





Examples
(Adjective clauses are underlined):

The mystery novel that she recently completed will be published next year.

(That refers back to novel and acts as a direct object in the adjective clause.)

Healing is more rapid for patients who have a positive attitude.

(Who refers back to patients and acts as the subject of the adjective clause.)






2. Relative pronouns that introduce noun clauses:





who, whom, what, which, whose, whoever, whomever, whatever, whichever, that

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Within a sentence, a noun clause may function as a subject, complement, appositive, or object of a verb or preposition.

The relative pronoun acts as a subject or object within the noun clause, though the normal word order may be changed.

Note: Who and whoever are used as subject pronouns, and whom and whomever are used as object pronouns.

(Noun clauses are underlined.)




Examples:



Whoever uses the kitchen should wash the dishes.

(The noun clause is the subject of the sentence. Whoever is the subject of the noun clause.)

The criminal got what he deserved.

(The noun clause is the direct object of the verb got. Within the noun clause, what is the direct object of the verb deserved, even though it comes before the verb.)


E. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS: An interrogative pronoun introduces a question.

who, whom, what, which, whose, whoever, whomever, whatever, whichever

Notice the similarity of this list to the relative pronoun list. Like relative pronouns, interrogative pronouns can have different grammatical functions. As in all questions, the word order may not be normal.


Examples:

Whose books are those?
(adjective modifying books)

Whom will Mr. Broder select as head of the committee?

(direct object of the verb will select)

In which of his two poems does the author express himself most effectively?

(object of the preposition in)

To Part II, Part IV

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About: My interests include geography, philosophy, good food and the arts. The complex art of communication fascinates me. I also enjoy my daily dose(s) of coffee!

Last Updated At Dec 07, 2012
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