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Writing is a representation of the spoken word. The spoken word
is not a representation of writing. Accents and pronunciation can
change easily and quite quickly, whereas what is written in books
and dictionaries remains "fixed" for years.
For various historical reasons, there is often little correspondence between spoken English (pronunciation) and written English (spelling). English spelling therefore often appears to be illogical.
The following rules can help you to decode the mysteries of English spelling. But remember, even the best rules have their exceptions.
Often we need to add -ing or -ed to a verb to
make other forms of the verb, for example: I was talking when John
Just add -ing or -ed to the end of the base verb:
â€¢ work > working > worked
â€¢ play > playing > played
â€¢ open > opening >
|If the base verb ends in:||Do this:||And add:||For example:|
|consonant + vowel + consonant
and a stressed syllable
|double the final consonant||-ing
|stop > stopping > stopped
begin > beginning
tap > tapping > tapped
But, for example:
open > opening > opened
(because no stress on last syllable of open)
|consonant + -e||remove the -e||-ing
|phone > phoning > phoned
dance > dancing > danced
make > making
rake > raking > raked
dye > dying > dyed
|-ie||change the -ie to -y||-ing||lie > lying
die > dying
|-ie||nothing||-d||lie > lied
die > died
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