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Spelling Rules I: Adding -ing/-ed

by May L

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Writing is a representation of the spoken word. The spoken word is not a representation of writing. Accents and pronunciation can change easily and quite quickly, whereas what is written in books and dictionaries remains "fixed" for years.

For various historical reasons, there is often little correspondence between spoken English (pronunciation) and written English (spelling). English spelling therefore often appears to be illogical.

The following rules can help you to decode the mysteries of English spelling. But remember, even the best rules have their exceptions.

Adding -ing/-ed

Often we need to add -ing or -ed to a verb to make other forms of the verb, for example: I was talking when John Smith arrived.

Spelling Rule

Just add -ing or -ed to the end of the base verb:

• work > working > worked

• play > playing > played

• open > opening > opened

Exceptions

If the base verb ends in: Do this: And add: For example:
consonant + vowel + consonant


and a stressed syllable
double the final consonant -ing
-ed
stop > stopping > stopped

begin > beginning

tap > tapping > tapped

But, for example:

open > opening > opened

(because no stress on last syllable of open)
consonant + -e remove the -e -ing
-ed
phone > phoning > phoned

dance > dancing > danced

make > making

rake > raking > raked

dye > dying > dyed
-ie change the -ie to -y -ing lie > lying

die > dying
-ie nothing -d lie > lied

die > died

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5 Comments
    mahijeeva
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    mahijeevaTue, 17 Dec 2013 10:20:34 -0000

    These pages are very useful and very comprehensive.and i am expecting more and more ideas like this to improve.

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    babysherriann
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    babysherriannFri, 06 Jan 2012 14:09:33 -0000

    hi regisha how are you doing today.

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    brenell
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    brenellFri, 06 Jan 2012 14:09:08 -0000

    these web page have great

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    MayMay
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    May LWed, 24 Sep 2008 15:37:28 -0000

    Hi Vpitman,

    Thanks for your constructive feedback. You bring up a great point!

    I will definitely take your suggestion and remember not confuse English learners when preparing table/charts in the future.

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    vpitman
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    Vance PitmanWed, 24 Sep 2008 14:40:47 -0000

    You may want to change your table to be more consistent. For the first two examples, you discuss adding -ing and -ed, but you split them in two for words that end in -ie. I would try to be consistent with visual aids: tables, charts, etc. They can be quite confusing for English learners with basic reading skills.

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MayMay
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About: My interests include geography, philosophy, good food and the arts. The complex art of communication fascinates me. I also enjoy my daily dose(s) of coffee!

Last Updated At Dec 07, 2012
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